This is the USB programmer for the "SparkFun MicroView OLED Module". It makes programming the MicroView very easy as it plugs into a USB port and also fits into a breadboard while you prototype. All pins of the MicroView are passed though the programmer so it can be used in place on a breadboard while you play.
The programmer can be used with multiple MicroView modules to save money and if you use a MicroView in a finished project like a portable gas sensor you still have the programmer later.
Breaking out the programmer allows the MicroView to fit in a smaller package and saves on costs.