Detachable cable / wire connectors fit together with a press fit or include a small hook to hold them securely in place. Typically used for power connections they allow you to remove or swap a power source for recharging. The connectors are normally keyed so they can only be joined in one way preventing reverse polarity disasters.
Small 2.1mm barrel jack connectors are commonly use on Arduino boards as a power input socket. Tamiya, JST, XT and T connectors are normally used for battery pack connections where a fair amount of current is at play.
Slip rings are a more permanent connector that allow one side of a multi wire connection to rotate continuously though 360° like a radar dish scanning the horizon.